Saturday, 2 April 2011


If it has anything to do with the Ice Cream Sundae, it has everything to do with us.  We are dedicated to supporting and respecting the convivial traditions of the fountain and celebrating the pleasures of the Ice Cream Sundae in everyday life.

No dessert could be simpler than the Ice Cream Sundae – a scoop of ice cream, a sweet topping, and the ubiquitous whipped cream and cherry at the top. But icons are never really that simple, and, perhaps more than any other dish, the Sundae is an American icon.  Like people, nations are what they eat.  More than any other native dish, the Ice Cream Sundae is an essential reminder of the American genius for invention, passion for indulgence, and reputation for wackiness.  The French may have given refinement to ice cream with their coupes and parfaits, but it took American excess and ingenuity to create the Sundae.  It's as messy and irresistible as democracy itself.
strawberry ice cream sundae

Sundaes are us, and they have been pleasuring our collective senses ever since 1892, when an enterprising Ithaca, New York, soda fountain proprietor accessorized a scoop of ice cream with sweet syrup and candied cherry, then named it after the Sabbath. A sundae is not just any dish, but a dessert that is original, enduring, and authentically American.  For well over a century, the ice cream sundae has been a symbol of our abundance and appetite, our ingenuity, and our never-lost youth.  In their assembly, sundaes provide an unrestrained opportunity to express our essential character.  They acquire personality not only through their combination of ingredients, but through the history that they witness.  During the twists and turns our country has taken over the past hundred or so years, ice cream sundaes have been standing by to lift our spirits.  After the 1929 stock market crash, one of the few luxuries that average folks could afford was the democratically-priced sundae.  During World War II, patriotic "Victory Sundaes" included a Defense Saving Stamp with every purchase, while the Navy commissioned floating ice cream parlors - refrigerated barges with ice cream plants - to boost troop morale.  In wartime and in hard times, home refrigerators were stocked with ice creams that, with a dash of imagination, provided the basis for an irresistible sundae. 
Following the classic model, sundaes are served in footed, tulip-shaped glasses, filled with scoops of ice cream as the foundation for interplays of sauces or syrups, perhaps the crunch of nuts, and often a cloud of whipped cream and signature cherry.  Florence Fabricant of The New York Times called author Michael Turback's A Month of Sundaes (Red Rock Press, 2002) "an admiring portrait of a famous temptation-weaves together sundae history, regional styles, folklore and recipes."  Seven years and many sundaes later, Turback returns to his favorite topic and provides what has got to be the definitive listing of 100 versions of the classic dessert - from humble, forgotten relics to dishes that have become popular standards, arranged in alphabetical order and instantly accessible.  Ice Cream Sundae: 100 Greatest Fountain Formulas is more than just a collection of recipes.  On every page there is a scoop of history, a measure of technique, and a sprinkle of trivia, all in aid of explaining the unique Americaness of the sundae.

Team india won the worls cup 2011

MUMBAI (AFP) - Gautam Gambhir made 97 and skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni smashed an unbeaten 91 off 79 balls as India won the World Cup for the first time since 1983 with a six-wicket victory over Sri Lanka on Saturday.
Sri Lanka, who won the toss and elected to bat in the day-night final, rode on Mahela Jayawardene’s 103 not out off 88 balls to pile up 274-6 in their 50 overs. India, cheered by a sell-out crowd of 33,000 at the Wankhede stadium, surpassed the challenging target with 10 balls to spare as Dhoni pounded Nuwan Kulasekara for the winning six. India had slumped to 31-2 by the sixth over when sling-arm fast bowler Lasith Malinga dismissed Virender Sehwag (0) second ball and had star batsman Sachin Tendulkar (18) caught behind in his fourth over.

“I took a quite few decisions tonight and if we hadn’t won I would have been asked quite a few questions,” said Dhoni, who batted at number five and had selected fast bowler Gambhir, who was dropped on 30 and escaped a run-out chance on 49, turned the match around by adding 83 for the third wicket with Virat Kohli and 109 for the fourth with Dhoni.
Yuvraj Singh, who was named the man of the tournament, partnered his skipper till the end with 21 not out after Gambhir was bowled by Thisara Perera in the 42nd over when 52 more were still needed.
Dhoni’s men emulated Kapil Dev’s compatriots who won the 1983 World Cup by beating the West Indies in the final at Lord’s in London. The victory, watched by Indian President Pratibha Patil and Sri Lanka’s head of state Mahinda Rajapakse, was the first occassion a team had won the tournament on home soil.
It was only the third time in 10 World Cup finals that a side batting second had chased down the victory target. The finale gave Tendulkar, the world’s most successful Test and one-day batsman, his first World Cup title in six appearances since 1992.

Why ocean is blue?

  • Blue wavelengths are absorbed the least by the deep ocean water and are scattered and reflected back to the observer’s eye
  • Particles in the water may help to reflect blue light
  • The ocean reflects the blue sky
Most of the time the ocean appears to be blue because this is the color our eyes see. But the ocean can be many other colors depending upon particles in the water, the depth of the water, and the amount of skylight.
The colors we see depend upon the reflection of the visible wavelengths of light to our eyes. The Franklin Institute provides a good explanation of how we see color at
Wavelengths of light pass through matter differently depending on the material’s composition. Blue wavelengths are transmitted to greater depths of the ocean, while red wavelengths are absorbed quickly. Water molecules scatter blue wavelengths by absorbing the light waves, and then rapidly reemitting the light waves in different directions. That is why there are mostly blue wavelengths that are reflected back to our eyes.
Sometimes oceans look green. This may be because there is an abundance of plant life or sediment from rivers that flow into the ocean. The blue light is absorbed more and the yellow pigments from plants mix with the blue light waves to produce the color green.
Sometimes parts of the oceans will look milky brown after a storm passes. This is because winds and currents associated with the storm churn up sand and sediment from the rivers that lead into the oceans.
The ocean may also reflect the blue sky. However this is prominent only at relatively low angles and when the water is smooth.

Friday, 1 April 2011

How to huy my girlfriend

Have you ever felt like giving a comforting hug to your girlfriend, but held back because you did not where and how to begin? Hugging forms one of the most common gestures of showing the other person that you care about him/her. So, whether you have hardly gone out for a few weeks with your girl or have been with each other for years now, a hug will always help strengthen the bond that you share. In case you are hesitant in going ahead with the hug, the tips given here might prove useful. Go through the following lines and know how to hug a girl that you like or are in love with.
Hugging A Girl You Like 
  • In order to hug a girl, you first need to make sure that the ambience is right, so that she doesn't start feeling uncomfortable. Never ever even attempt to hug her in a crowded area or she might feel offended. Make such an attempt only when you feel that the environment is right, say a quiet street or park, where you are less likely to be disturbed.
  • Approach her with a bit of caution and lots of confidence. Look straight into her eyes and smile a little. Then ask her something trivial, like 'how was your day?' or even 'how did the office go today?'. Make sure that it is not a topic that will elicit a long response.
  • Now, lean your torso forward, towards her, and extend your arms. Pause for a few seconds and let her acknowledge this. If she doesn't, pull back for a second, just to make sure that she wants the hug as well. Remember, she should not feel as if you are imposing the hug upon her.
  • If she pulls back and doesn’t seem as if she wants the hug, adjust your extended arms and offer her a quick pat on the shoulder or back. If she seems interested, take a step towards her, so that your feet and her feet are nearly touching.
  • Now, go for the actual embrace, by placing your arms around her back, somewhere near her waist. Do not place your hands at inappropriate places. Her arms will either be around your waist or shoulders. You should lightly pull her towards you, making the hug firm, but gentle.
  • If you feel that she is up to it, you can make the hug more intimate. For instance, you can lightly rub her back, in a circular motion, with your hands and arms. You can slowly sway back and forth or even hold her tighter and lift her up off her feet. However, all this is usually not recommended in the first hug only. Give her time to get used to the new intimacy.
  • Just like initiating a hug, ending it properly is also important. Look for the subtle signs that she gives, to let you know that she wants you to release her, like relaxing her arms. Make sure to take the hint. Then, let your arms slide out from her side and bring them back to your own side.
  • Look at her eyes once again and give a gentle, not naughty, smile. This will let her know that you appreciate the hug and enjoyed it thoroughly. You can either leave after this or continue with the conversation that you were having earlier.






Thursday, 31 March 2011

Tips To Make Your Eyes Look Beautiful

When we look at someone,we first glance at their face irrespective of their body form. We tend to judge people through looks and impressions. The most attractive part of the face are eyes. Making them attractive and beautiful is the key to successful make up.

Here are some of the tips for eye make up.

1.Brows – Dust some eye shadow powder and brush off the extra with eyebrow brush. It's best to choose a shade that matches your skin tone. The brush should be flat and angled at the tip.

2.Eye liner- Using a sharpened Eye pencil to draw a thin line under the lash makes the lashes appear thicker. Hold the corner of your eyes with the finger tip while applying applying the liner. A thicker line is morw attractive, though on already big eyes, a thin line looks better. Be sure to blend the line with a wedge sponge or Q Tip to soften.

3.Big Eyes- Start with lining the outer corner of the eye with medium tone eye color .Set shape by angling slightly upward. Apply eye color on entire eyelid as far as crease,that blends outward. The starting corner and the outer corner of the eyes should be colured the darkest.

4.For Normal Eyes- Using a medium to dark eye color start at the outer corner of the eyes and set shape slightly upward. Blend a darker shade over the hooded area, extending it into the brow bone. Blend a medium tone in the center of the lid , softly blending to soften the brow bone.

5.Deep Set Style- Use medium shade of shadow starting at corner of eye, slightly angling upward, and blend. Use light shade on entire eyelid. Blend softly to brow bone. Apply light shade under brow and stay away from dark colours.

6.Round Eyes- Use light colored shadow over the entire lid and a darker shade in the crease. Apply eyeliner on both the top and bottom lids, and use mascara on the upper outer lashes . 

7.Photographs- To keep your eyes from fading in photographs, clean up your eyebrows , well defined and completely filled-in. The same goes for your eye lashes. Use a curler and two coats of waterproof mascara. For shadow color, don't use pink, light blue or frosts; they'll make you look tired. A natural look is your best bet. The more comfortable you feel with your eye make up, the more confident you'll be in any situation.

Follow these instructions to get a killer look but while drawing your eyes make sure you use branded products cause old products or unbranded products can put your sight at risk.

Types of Strawberry Plants

    • Strawberries can be grown by the home gardener. They will require soil that is at least a little acidic and an area with full sun. There are two main types of strawberries, and they make it possible to harvest them from spring to fall.


    • This type of strawberry is ready for harvest during the spring months. It will have to be watered during the dry season and not allowed to dry out, as it requires an inch of water each week to thrive. June-bearing plants usually produce larger fruits than the ever-bearing and day-neutral plants will provide. They produce fruit for a period of up to three weeks. You can use early and late varieties in your garden, as well as midseason types.
      Planting the Winona Giant type of June-bearing strawberry will provide you with large, sweet berries. The Sparkle Supreme is a strong, self-pollinating variety and the Jewel provides the grower with large berries to harvest.


    • Ever-bearing strawberries are harvestable from spring to autumn, but will provide smaller fruits than the June-bearing variety. They may provide a little fruit during the summer months as well. They can be grown in beds, fields or containers, and can be grown as annuals with high yields in Alaska.
      The Ozark Beauty is a type of ever-bearing strawberry that is a vigorous grower with thick foliage. Eversweet strawberry plants will tolerate temperatures of over 100 degrees, and the Fort Laramie will grow anywhere in the United States.


    • This variety of strawberry produces fruit when temperatures are between 35 and 85 degrees, usually during summer and autumn. In some areas, they may grow in spring as well. This variety will not produce a large crop of berries all at once, but will produce fruit over the entire term. The day-neutral variety can be grown in containers on a porch, and will also grow in a window that receives a lot of sun each day.
      The Tri Star provides berries that are glossy and deep red in color. Planting the Tribute will provide you with fruit that is a good choice for fresh eating. The Seascape is another day-neutral variety. It will provide you with big crops, and the fruits produced will be large.

Tips for perfect lips

Beautiful lips are often compared to rose petals, and rightly so. Perfect lips are an asset and with regular care, you can get those ideal lips you have been yearning for. A perfect pair of lips makes your smile look brighter and your face even more beautiful. Extra care is required for your lips as they are more sensitive than the rest of your face. The article brings you some valuable tips on how to get perfect and supremely attractive lips. Read on to know how to enhance the beauty of your lips and bag some extra compliments.
Tips For Perfect Lips
To make your lips look beautiful, it is important to exfoliate them on a regular basis, just as you do with the rest of your body. Since lips have an extremely sensitive skin, you can’t use your facial scrub to exfoliate dead cells from your lips. Rub a soft, dry brush on your lips, once in a week. Lips treatments containing salicylic acid can also be used to peel off dead skin from your lips without causing them any damage.
Moisturizing your lips is important to maintain their soft look and beauty. Apply lip balm on your lips before the application of lipstick and then, blot away excess lipstick. It is better to avoid flavored lip balms, as they may tempt you to lick your lips which can cause chapping. If your lips are cracked or bleeding, treat them with a very small amount of hydrocortisone cream mixed with an over-the-counter antibacterial ointment such as Polysporin.
Angelina Jolie lipsShape Your Lips
You can create an illusion of dimension, if your lips are thin. Dabbing a dot of gloss on the central area of your lower lip will do the trick for thin lips. Gloss will reflect light and impart your lips a fuller appearance. On the other hand, if you have fuller lips, you can make them appear thin by applying dark shades of lipstick. Nude and matte shades will also help to downsize fuller lips.
Treat The Bleeding Lipstick
To make your lips look perfect, you must stop the bleeding of your lipstick. It is better to choose a long-wearing lipstick which doesn’t bleed and spoil the area around your lips. You can also apply a small amount of foundation on your lips, followed by the lipstick. Then, dab some talcum powder on the lip area, which will keep the lipstick in place for long and not allow it to bleed. However, creating a base for glosses or sheer lipstick will distort their color.
Eat A Healthy Diet
To get those perfect lips, it is essential to keep them in good health, naturally. Drink plenty of water, eat fresh fruits and vegetables to keep your lips supple and soft, and maintain their natural luster. A healthy, nutritious diet will prove to be a boon in the long run as it can effectively delay your botox sessions. Take care to include almonds and other nuts in your diet.

India vs Pakistan Semifinal - Today's Match Result and Summary-India won by 29 run

India has won by 29 runs in the second Semifinal of ICC World Cup 2011 against Paksithan that take place in Punjab Cricket Association Stadium in Mohali today. Now, India entered in to the grand finale of ICC World cup 2011. In Final of ICC World cup 2011, India will meet srilanka on April 2. India made the victory with their good bowling and fielding against Pakistan.sachin tendulkar'shalf century also helped India in this victory.

India winning

Earlier India won the toss and elected to bat. For India the opening Batsman sehwag gave a fantastic opening with his 38 runs from 32 balls which include 9 super boundaries. Sachin Tendulkar, the little master is the real hero in Today's match. His half century with 85 runs with 11 boundaries was a visual treat to all his fans around the glob. To those who waited for his 100th International century, master tried his best. But all goes in vain, when he got out by the ball of Ajmal. But the 85 runs he scored sets the total of India to 260. gambir and Captain Mahendra Singh dhoni put soem more runs to the score board. The most shocking moment was the out of yuvraj who was clean bowled by Riaz in the first ball itself. Then Raina(36) with the company of other members made a good total for India. Thus India made a target of 261 runs for Pakisthan.

In Mohali,Today we saw the fantastic bowling and fielding of India. Every bowlers of India shared two wickets each. Although Yuvraj didn't perform well in the batting side, he had taken 2 important wickets. Thus India defeated the Pak Batsmen all the way. They were all out for 231 runs in 49.5 overs .Thus India won by 29 runs against Pakisthan and entered in the final of ICC World Cup 2011.

The full score card and Live Scoreboard is here:

India Innings

Paksithan Innings 

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen

Bunsen was born on March 31, 1811 in Göttingen, Germany, the youngest of four sons. As his father was a professor of modern languages at the university, an academic environment would surround him from birth. After schooling in the city of Holzminden, Bunsen studied chemistry at Göttingen. Receiving his doctorate at age 19, Bunsen set off on extensive travels, partially underwritten by the government, that took him through Germany and Paris and eventually to Vienna from 1830 to 1833. During this time, Bunsen visited Henschel's machinery manufacturing plant and saw the "new small steam engine." In Berlin, he saw the mineralogical collections of Weiss and had contact with Runge, the discoverer of aniline. Continuing on his journeys, Bunsen met with Liebig in Giessen and with Mitscherlich in Bonn for a geological trip through the Eifel mountains.
The essential piece of laboratory equipment that has immortalized the name of Robert Wilhelm Bunsen was not invented by him. Bunsen improved the burner's to aid his endeavors in spectroscopy. Ironically, Bunsen will be remembered by generations of chemistry students for a mere improvement in a burner , when his other contributions to the field of chemistry are vastly more significant and diverse, covering such areas as organic chemistry, arsenic compounds, gas measurements and analysis, the galvanic battery, elemental spectroscopy and geology.In Paris and Vienna, Bunsen visited the Sevres porcelain works and met with the outstanding chemists of the times. These travels allowed Bunsen the opportunity to establish a network of contacts that would stay with him throughout his illustrious career.
Upon his return to Germany, Bunsen became a lecturer at Göttingen and began his experimental studies of the insolubility of metal salts of arsenious acid. His discovery of the use of iron oxide hydrate as a precipitating agent is still the best known antidote against arsenic poisoning to this day. This was his only venture in organic/physiological chemistry. In 1836, Bunsen was nominated to succeed Wöhler at Kassel. He taught there for two years before accepting a position at the University of Marsburg which was the site of his important and dangerous studies of cacodyl derivatives. This research was his only work in pure organic chemistry and made him immediately famous within the scientific community. Cacodyl (from the Greek kakodhs - "stinking") was also known as alkarsine or "Cadet's liquid," a product made from arsenic distilled with potassium acetate. The chemical composition of this liquid was unknown, but it and its compounds were known to be poisonous, highly flammable and had an extremely nauseating odor even in minute quantities. Bunsen himself described one of these compounds: "the smell of this body produces instantaneous tingling of the hands and feet, and even giddiness and insensibility...It is remarkable that when one is exposed to the smell of these compounds the tongue becomes covered with a black coating, even when no further evil effects are noticeable."
Bunsen's daring experiments showed that cacodyl was an oxide of arsenic that contained a methyl radical (a group of atoms acting as one species). These results significantly furthered the earlier work by Gay-Lussac, who had isolated the radical cyan in 1815, and that of Liebig and Wöhler who published "One the radical of benzoic acid" in 1832. Typical of his research life, however, Bunsen seemed content to explore subjects of interest in his lab, but remained outside the fray that surrounded the often "violent" discussions of theoretical subjects. Although Bunsen's work brought him quick and wide acclaim, he nearly killed himself from arsenic poisoning and it also cost him the sight of one eye - an explosion of the compound sent a sliver of glass into his eye.

While at Marsburg, Bunsen studied blast furnaces and demonstrated that over half the heat was lost in the charcoal-burning German furnaces. In British furnaces, over 80% was lost. Bunsen and a collaborator, Lyon Playfair, suggested techniques that could recycle gases through the furnace and retrieve valuable escaping by-products such as ammonia. Other work during this period concentrated on technological experiments such as the generation of galvanic currents in batteries. In 1841, instead of the expensive platinum electrode used in Grove's battery, Bunsen made a carbon electrode. This led to large scale use of the "Bunsen battery" in the production of arc-light and in electroplating.
One of the more memorable episodes during Bunsen's tenure at Marsburg was a geological trip to Iceland sponsored by the Danish government following the eruption of Mount Hekla in 1845. Indulging his lifelong interest in geology, Bunsen collected gases emitted from volcanic vents and performed extensive chemical analyses of volcanic rock. In addition to sampling lava gases, Bunsen investigated the theory of geyser action. The popular belief of his time was that the water from geysers was volcanic in origin. Bunsen took rocks from the area and boiled them in rain water. He found that the resulting solution was quite similar to geyser water. He conducted temperature studies on the water in the geyser tube at different depths and discovered that the water was indeed hot enough to boil. Due to pressure differentials caused by the moving column of water, boiling occurs in the middle of the tube and throws the mass of water above it into the sky above. In true investigative spirit Bunsen experimented with an artificial geyser in the lab:
"To confirm his theory, Bunsen made an artificial geyser, consisting of a basin of water having a long tube extending below it. He heated the tube at the bottom andat about the middlepoint. As the water at the middle reached its boiling point, all of the phenomena of geyser action were beautifully shown, including the preliminary thundering. That was in 1846. From that day to this Bunsen's theory of geyser action has been generally accepted by geologists."
In 1852 Bunsen succeeded Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg. His stature was such that he attracted students and chemists from all over the world to study in his laboratory. Again, Bunsen ignored the current trend in organic chemistry which was fast overtaking the experimental world. Instead, Bunsen improved his earlier work on batteries: using chromic acid instead of nitric acid, he was able to produce pure metals such as chromium, magnesium, aluminum, manganese, sodium, aluminum, barium, calcium and lithium by electrolysis. Bunsen devised a sensitive ice calorimeter that measured the volume rather than the mass of the ice melted. This allowed him to measure the metals' specific heat to find their true atomic weights. During this period, he also pressed magnesium into wire. The element came into general use as an outstanding illuminating agent.
A former student of Bunsen's believes that it was this "splendid light" from the combustion of magnesium that led Bunsen to devote considerable attention to photochemical studies. A ten year collaboration with Sir Henry Roscoe began in 1852. They took equal volumes of gaseous hydrogen and chlorine and studied the formation of HCl, which occurs in specific relationship to the amount of light received. Their results showed that the light radiated from the sun per minute was equivalent to the chemical energy of 25 x 1012 mi3 of a hydrogen-chlorine mixture forming HCl. In 1859, Bunsen suddenly discontinued his work with Roscoe, telling him:
At present Kirchhoff and I are engaged in a common work which doesn't let us sleep...Kirchhoff has made a wonderful, entirely unexpected discovery in finding the cause of the dark lines in the solar spectrum....thus a means has been found to determine the composition of the sun and fixed stars with the same accuracy as we determine sulfuric acid, chlorine, etc., with our chemical reagents. Substances on the earth can be determined by this method just as easily as on the sun, so that, for example, I have been able to detect lithium in twenty grams of sea water."
Gustav Kirchhoff, a young Prussian physicist, had the brilliant insight to use a prism to separate the light into its constituent rays, instead of looking through colored glass to distinguish between similarly colored flames. Thus the fledgling science of spectroscopy, which would develop into a vital tool for chemical analysis, was born. In order to study the resultant spectra, however, a high temperature, nonluminous flame was necessary. An article published by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 states:
"The lines show up the more distinctly the higher the temperature and the lower the luminescence of the flame itself. The gas burner described by one of us has a flame of very high temperature and little luminescence and is, therefore, particularly suitable for experiments on the bright lines that are characteristic for these substances."
The burner described was quickly dubbed the "Bunsen burner," although the apparatus is not of his design. The concept to premix the gas and air prior to combustion in order to yield the necessary high temperature, nonluminous flame belongs to Bunsen. Credit for the actual design and manufacture of the burner goes to Peter Desaga, a technician at the University of Heidelburg. Within five years of the development of the burner, Bunsen and Kirchhoff were deeply involved with spectroscopy, inventing yet another instrument: the Bunsen-Kirchhoff spectroscope. This vital instrument of chemical analysis can trace its ancestry to such simple components as a "prism, a cigar box, and two ends of otherwise unusable old telescopes." From such humble beginnings came the instrument which proved to be of tremendous importance in chemical analysis and the discovery of new elements.
In addition to yielding a unique spectrum for each element, the spectroscope had the advantage of definite identification while only using a minimal amount of sample, on the range of nanograms to micrograms for elements like sodium and barium respectively. Using the techniques they devised, Bunsen and Kirchhoff announced the discovery of cesium (Latin caesium, "sky blue") in the following passage:
"Supported by unambiguous results of the spectral-analytical method, we believe we can state right now that there is a fourth metal in the alkali group besides potassium, sodium, and lithium, and it has a simple characteristic spectrum like lithium; a metal that shows only two lines in our apparatus: a faint blue one, almost coinciding with Srd, and another blue one a little further to the violet end of the spectrum and as strong and as clearly defined as the lithium line."
In 1861, only a few months following their cesium discovery, Bunsen and Kirchhoff announced the discovery of yet another new alkali metal. Two hitherto undiscovered violet spectral lines in an alkali of the mineral lepidolite were attributed to a new element, rubidium. Bunsen and Kirchhoff's combined genius quickly paved the way for others to claim elemental discoveries. The spectroscope served as a springboard by which five new elements were discovered. These included thallium (Crookes, 1861), indium (Reich and Richter, 1863), gallium (Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 1875), scandium (Nilson, 1879) and germanium (Winkler, 1886). Fittingly, Bunsen's original vision of analyzing the composition of the stars was realized in 1868 when helium was discovered in the solar spectrum.
Throughout his professional life, Bunsen's personal life centered around his laboratory and his students. Never marrying, Bunsen often took on the introductory courses that were shunned by other colleagues. During the one hundred hours of lectures presented each semester, Bunsen emphasized experimentation and tabulated summaries and patiently introduced students to the world of analytical chemistry. Bunsen's habit was to assign a scientific task to his students and then to work with a student only as long as required to reach some measure of independence. Many principal players in the history of chemistry can trace their chemical roots back to Bunsen's laboratory. Two of his more famous students were Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer. According to accounts, Bunsen was one of the more modest of giants:
"He never said: 'I have discovered,' or 'I found'...He was characterized by extraordinary, distinguished modesty. That does not mean that he was not conscious of his own value. He knew how to use it at the right time and in the right company; he even had a considerable degree of very sound egotism."
The scientific world held Bunsen in high esteem for much of his long professional life. In 1842 he was elected to the Chemical Society of London and the Academie des Sciences in 1853. He was named a foreign fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1858, receiving its Copley Medal in 1860. Bunsen and Kirchhoff were recipients of the first Davy Medal in 1877. The Albert Medal was awarded in 1898 in recognition of Bunsen's many scientific contributions to industry. Of these honors, Bunsen once remarked,"Such things had value for me only because they pleased my mother; she is now dead."
Upon his retirement at the age of 78, Bunsen left the chemical work behind, returned to his first love of geology, keeping up with the latest developments in the field and corresponding with his old friends such as Roscoe, Kirchhoff and Helmholtz. Bunsen died August 16, 1899 after a peaceful three day sleep, leaving behind a glowing legacy of discoveries and technological advances that allowed the world of chemistry to burn brightly. (reference:

Tuesday, 29 March 2011


The elephant's nose and upper lip are elongated into a muscular, powerful trunk. This truly multi-purpose tool is powerful enough to uproot trees but dextrous enough that the two 'fingers' at its tip can pick up single seeds. Elephants can swim considerable distances and, in deeper water, will use their trunks like snorkels.


The tusks are elongated upper incisor teeth and are not necessarily the same size. Some adults lack tusks and some have only one. Bulls typically have thicker, heavier tusks than females. Elephants will often uproot trees and then use their tusks to chisel the bark off.

Eyes and Ears
An elephant's eyes are small relative to the huge size of the animal. The ears are very large, flat and roughly the shape of the African continent, often with tears and holes in them. The ears are laden with blood vessels and when flapped, help bring down the huge beast's body temperature.

Feet and Tail
The front feet are roughly circular, with five blunt toenails; the hind feet are oval, with four blunt toenails. The soles are padded, allowing amazingly silent movement for such a large amimal. The tail is thin, up to 1.5 m long, and has a whisk of long, thick hairs at the end.

ElephantVisible Male/Female Differences
Females have one pair of mammae, low on the sides of the chest, just behind the forelegs. Both sexes have a thick flap of skin hanging between their hind legs. Males are larger, taller and twice as heavy as cows. Bulls have wider heads and in profile they have a more rounded forehead.

Very unselective; when browsing acacias they swallow more wood than leaves. In summer, grass forms the bulk of the diet, replaced in winter by woody plants. Intake is about 150kg wet weight per day while water intake is 120 litres a day for an adult bull.

Single calves weighing 120kg are born throughout the year after a gestation of 22 months. Calves are weaned at 3-8 years, just before the birth of the next calf.


Elephants are very vocal, producing a wide variety of squeals, screams and high-pitched trumpeting which are audible to humans. Seventy-five percent of the vocal communication uses frequencies too low for humans to hear.

Description of Indian Elephants
The Indian Elephant is described as Elephas maximus of south-central Asia. They are very large, grey, four-legged herbivorous mammals. They have almost hairless skin, a distinctive long, flexible, prehensile trunk. Its upper incisors form long curved tusks of ivory. The ears of Indian elephants are significantly smaller than African elephants.
Understanding Scientific names of animalsThe scientists who study animals (zoology) are called zoologists. Each animal that is studied is classified, that is, split into descriptive groups starting with main groups ( vertebrates and invertebrates ) the Families of animals are also included such as Ursidae ( the family of bears) and the families are then split into species such as Ursus americanus (American Black Bear)

Facts about where Elephants live and what they eat!

Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and barkFacts about Elephants ears
  • Despite the size of ears the elephant’s hearing is poor
  • African elephants have bigger ears than Indian elephants
  • African elephants ears are used to aid ventilation
  • One of the softest parts of their body is at the back of the ears, which is called the knuckle. Elephant trainers, called Mahouts, use their feet to steer or give commands to the animal via the knuckle at the back of the ears

Basic Facts about Elephants

The name of an adult male is referred to as a bull
The name of an adult female is referred to as a cow
The name or offspring, or a baby Elephant, is a calf
The average size of a litter is just one elephant
The collective name for a group of Elephants is a herd
The sounds made by an adult Elephant are referred to as grunts, purrs, bellows, whistles and trumpeting
Facts about the Size of Male African Elephants
A fully grown adult reaches the height of 10 - 13 feet
Adult African elephants weigh about 15,400 pounds

Facts about the Size of Male Indian Elephants
A Fully grown adult reaches the height of 10 feet
Adult Indian elephants weigh about 11,000 pounds

Cool and Fun Facts about the life, behavior and personality of Elephants
  • The elephant is the largest of all land mammals
  • Life Span - elephants can live for up to 70 years
  • Elephants normally walk about 4 mph
  • Elephants are able to swim for long distances
  • Elephants spend about 16 hours a day eating
  • They consume as much as 495 pounds of food per day
  • They live in tight social units led by an older matriarch
  • Males leave the herd between the ages of 12 and 15
  • Their tusks are of ivory and are actually enormously enlarged incisors
  • The elephant's eyes are small and its eyesight is poor
  • They have the largest brains in the animal kingdom

Problems of brest feeding

Breastfeeding is the act of naturally feeding an infant with milk produced in the mother’s breast. This has unlimited amounts of benefits for the baby not only breast milk is healthier but the action of feeding the child is a moment of love in which the baby learns to bond, smell and caress with the mother as she gives nourishment and affection. Without a doubt breast milk is the best food for a newborn, nothing comes even closer to provide all the nutrients that the baby will need later in life. Breast milk is much easier to digest then any formula in the market, at the same time it provides protection against infections, prevents future food allergies, helps the growth of healthy teeth, and most important it improves brain development. Studies had shown that breastfed babies are more intelligent than formula fed babies.
However, many mothers stopbreastfeeding after the third or fourth month switching to formula and later to cow’s milk, this certainly robs the baby of the special qualities that breast milk offers. Infants that stop nursing before the forth month are at risk of developing asthma, food and respiratory allergies, intestinal bacteria, and oral weaknesses (poor teeth development).
Sometimes a mother can not breastfed her baby due to a number of reasons, such as, low quality of milk, breast pain, infection, etc. That’s when herbs come into play, many midwifes have used them for years to improve quality and quantity of milk, to fight infection and much more, take a look at the following conditions and the natural ways to treat them.
Low quality or quantity of milk
Low quality of milk can be cause by medications or a poor diet, many antibiotics contaminate the milk and a diet high in caffeine may cause colics and sleeping problems for the baby it is very important the the mother keeps eating a well balance diet after giving birth, and preferably foods with no traces of pesticides these poisons become highly concentrated in the milk.
The use of a breast pump may inhibit the production of milk, lowering the amount available to the baby, this gives the false idea that the infant should be change to formula in order for him to be satisfied, when in fact the problem is the quantity of milk that the mother is producing.
Herbs can help with both of these common problems.
We recommend
- Eat alfalfa or take it in capsules, it stimulates lactation, improves quality and quantity of milk.
- Chaste tree Increases flow of milk, by affecting pituitary’s prolactin secretion.
- Chinese use an herb called codonopsis to increase lactation and strengthen the blood.
- Goat’s rue this herb is been used by midwifes for hundreds of years to improve breast milk production by as much as 50 %.
- Vervain encourages milk secretion and flow, it also increases absorption of nutrients from food and helps with postpartum depression.
- Milk thistle promotes production of milk and decreases pesticide residues in breast and milk.
TIP: Did you know that tight bras may stop the milk production and cause plugged ducts?.
- Cumin helps increase milk production.
- Carawayaniseeddill, and fennel promote flow of best milk. It can be taken in form of teas or infusion.
- If you are prone to chills while breastfeeding and have poor quality of milk use calcarea.
Breast engorgement is a very common problem that start affecting the mother in the first two or three weeks after delivery and is more annoying to women with poor skin elasticity. Engorgement is due to milk excessively filling the breast together with blood and fluid retention in the same area.
Usually the breast feels full, hard, tight, tender, painful, the breast feels hot to the touch and a fever may develop, the baby may have a hard time to latch on and suck.
We recommend
- Take a handful of Confrey leaves and steam them for a few minutes wrapped in a gauze and placed on the breast are very helpful relieving engorgement.
- Take the homeopathic remedy Belladonna 6X.
- Soak a towel in hot water and place it on the breast ten minutes before feeding.
- Poke root reduces swollen breast and pain. Use under doctor supervision.
- Elder is used to reduce swelling of engorged breast.
- Chamomile help control inflamed breast.
- Give your baby frequent feeds on both breast 10 to 15 minutes each.
- Use a pump to extract milk between feedings to control engorgement.
- Massage the breast while feeding to help milk flow easily.
- Mix 2 quarts of boiling water.
- tsp. of vitex berries. 2 tsp. of blessed thistle leaves. 1 tsp. of nettle leaves. 1/2 tsp. fenugreek seed. 1/2 tsp. anise seed. Let it steep for 30 minutes, strain and drink 2 cups a day.
- Bryonia reduces swollen and hard breasts.
- Pulsatilla and calcarea is very helpful reducing the size and hardness of engorged breasts.
- When the production of milk is excessive and produces engorgement a cold compress using peppermint oil should be used.
- A compress of marshmallow and slippery elm often reduces engorgement.
Plugged duct
This is a problem that occurs when the baby does not empty the breast completely on each feeding, the milk remaining in the duct hardens and blocks the duct eventually plugging it. Tight bras can cause plugged ducts as well. If the breast feels sore
it might be a sign of plugged ducts. A plugged duct should be taking care of as soon as possible, if not so it can develop into Mastitis.
We recommend
- Castor oil helps with inflammation and pain.
- Elder is used to reduce swelling of plugged breast ducts.
- Queen’s delight Clears congestion of lymphatic vessels, stimulates white blood cells to react to infection.
- Check your nipples everyday, if you see dry milk on them or dark dots remove them with a cotton and warm water and feed your child as soon a s possible from that breast.
- Place the baby in different positions every time, this will ensure that all ducts are being used.
- Place hot towels on the breast or run hot water over them in the shower.
- Massage the breast in the direction of the nipple to try to get the milk to come out. Mastitis
Mastitis is a condition that results when a plugged duct becomes infected, the breast swells due to a bacteria that enters through tinny cracks on the nipples. The breast infected with mastitis becomes red and painful with pus secretion other symptoms are fever, fatigue, vomiting or nausea.
We recommend
- Take poke root this helps mastitis. Use under doctor supervision.
- Queen’s delight Clears congestion of lymphatic vessels, stimulates white blood cells to react to infection.
- Place hot towels on the breast or run hot water over them in the shower.
- Elder is used to reduce swelling of breast infected with mastitis.
- Rest as much as you can.
- Drink lots of water or alfalfa juice.
- Coat your nipples with breast milk after feeding.
- There are antibiotics that are safe for nursing mothers and their babies, see your doctor if your case is very severe. However we recommend that you try to avoid antibiotic as much as you can.
- Wash your hands before and after feeding, to prevent bacteria contamination.
- Dandelion is very helpful and popular herb to treat mastitis.
- The chinese use gentian to cure mastitis.
- Madder root is useful in relieving mastitis.
Cracked nipples
Cracked nipples can develop when the baby is being position wrongly or by using damp breast pads. The nipple becomes irritated, redBusiness management Articles, and painful in some cases bleeding may develop.
- Calendula cream will soothe and encourage the healing of cracked nipples and is safe for the baby to swallow.
- The homeopathic remedy called chamomilla helps heal cracked nipples.
- The homeopathic remedy called pulsatilla helps heal cracked nipples.
- Sulfur is also helpful for cracked nipples.
- Apply vitamin E to sore and cracked nipples.